Models are mechanisms for communication. But each model shows only a small amount of the totality of information about the artefact; too much information in a model makes it difficult to comprehend. Models are typically used when it is either impossible or impractical to create experimental conditions in which scientists can directly measure outcomes. Direct measurement of outcomes under controlled conditions will always be more accurate than modeled estimates of outcomes. When predicting outcomes, models use assumptions, while measurements do not. As the number of assumptions in a model increases, the accuracy and relevance of the model diminishes. Conceptual models are used to help us know, understand, or simulate the subject matter they represent. Conceptual models represent human intentions or semantics. [1]

A model in science is anything used as a representation of an object, law, theory or event used as a tool for understanding the science world. [2] Whereas, a business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value (economic, social, cultural, or other forms of value). The process of business model construction is part of business strategy. Below list of items are topics which are relevant to model:

What is Modeling and Modeling Languages?

What is modeling?
Modelling (or Abstraction, one of paradigms of computer science, see) is about building representations of things in the "real world" and allowing ideas to be investigated; it is central to all activities in the process for building or creating an artefact of some form or other. In effect, a model is a way of expressing a particular view of an identifiable system of some kind. Scientific modelling is the process of generating abstract, conceptual, graphical and/or mathematical models.
See also: Model and Modeling, Modeling Journal, Computer Modeling, What is Simulation?, Sys ML, The Java Modeling Language

What is Modeling Language?
A modelling language (also see) is any artificial language that can be used to express information or knowledge or systems in a structure that is defined by a consistent set of rules. The rules are used for interpretation of the meaning of components in the structure. A modeling language can be graphical or textual. Graphical modeling languages use a diagram technique where textual modeling languages typically use standardized keywords accompanied by parameters to make computer-interpretable expressions.
See: business process modeling tools

Types of modeling languages

Suggested Reading: UML Books, EXPRESS, Modeling Language, Workflow, Applying UML and Patterns, Unified Modeling Languegs, UML, UML distilled, Model Driven Engineering, OO SE with UML Patterns and Java

Applications of ML / Types of Scientific Modeling

Applications of Modeling Languages
Many kinds of modeling languages are applied in different disciplines, including computer science, information management, business process modeling, software engineering, and systems engineering.

Modeling languages can be used to specify: system requirements, structures and behaviors. The more mature modeling languages are precise, consistent and executable. Executable modeling languages applied with proper tool support, however, are expected to automate system verification, validation, simulation and code generation from the same representations.

Types of Scientific Modelling [3]


What is Business Law?

Business can be defined as an organization that provides goods and services to others who want or need them. Many business-related careers, exist in large corporations, in small businesses, non-profit organizations, government agencies, and educational settings. Furthermore, you don't need a degree in business to obtain many of these positions. In short, every sector of our economy needs people with strong overall skills that can be applied to business-type careers. There are a wide variety of career areas that exist in business settings[4]. Some of these include:


What is Business Law?
Business law encompasses the law governing contracts, sales, commercial paper, agency and employment law, business organizations, property, and bailments. Other popular areas include insurance, wills and estate planning, and consumer and creditor protection. Business law may include issues such as starting, selling ,or buying a small business, managing a business, dealing with employees, or dealing with contracts, among others. Quote of the Day: "Since the market tends to go in the opposite direction of what the majority of people think, I would say 95% of all these people you hear on TV shows are giving you their personal opinion. And personal opinions are almost always worthless . facts and markets are far more reliable." - William J. O'Neil
See also: What is Business Law?, What is Business?, Business Development, Business Consulting Articles, Thinking Maps, Think Tanks

Business Process Management - (BPM)

BMP life-cycle (from wiki) BPM (see also Rule Engines and Workflow Engines, Integration Framework) is a systematic approach to improving an organization's business processes. BPM activities seek to make business processes more effective, more efficient, and more capable of adapting to an ever-changing environment. BPM is a subset of infrastructure management, the administrative area of concern dealing with maintenance and optimization of an organization's equipment and core operations.
A business process is a set of coordinated tasks and activities, conducted by both people and equipment, that will lead to accomplishing a specific organizational goal. The Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI), a non-profit organization, exists to promote the standardization of common business processes, as a means of furthering e-business and business-to-business (B2B) development. To this end, the organization has developed the Business Process Modeling Language (BPML), an XML-based metalanguage for modeling business processes[5].

BPM (Business Process Management) is a set of technologies and standards for the modeling, execution, monitoring, optimization and design of business processes. Confusingly, the acronym BPM can mean different things, some closely related to Business Process Modelling.

See also: • Business FrameworkBusiness ModelBusiness ArchitectureBusiness Framework EngineeringMicrosoft Business Framework

Business Process Modeling (BPM), Modeling and Design Tools

What Is Business Process Modeling? - read articles on BPM: About, Overview, BPM, BMP Network .
A Business Process Model (BPM) is commonly a diagram representing a sequence of activities . It typically shows events, actions and links or connection points, in the sequence from end to end. BPM is typically performed by business analysts and managers who are seeking to improve process efficiency and quality.

Business process modeling tools

Business process modeling tools provide business users with the ability to model their business processes, implement and execute those models, and refine the models based on as-executed data. As a result, it can provide transparency into business processes, as well as the centralization of corporate business process models and execution metrics.

Other technologies related to business process modeling include model-driven architecture (MDA) and service-oriented architecture (SOA).

Suggested Reading: Models and Modeling, Business Intelligence, OLAP / OLTP and etc., Essential BPM, Business process management

Modeling & Design Tools for your Enterprise: (see also, another BPM tool Tibco Business Works)

Other Tools: Java ToolkitAPI'sProgrammer's CornerWebDev. ToolsDatabase ToolsModeling & DesignMultimediaMaths and Science


  1. 1. Model
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  3. 3. What is a model
  4. 4. Business Administration
  5. 5. Search Tech
  6. List of think tanks